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英语翻译:谈谈外文出版社的常见做法

日期:2017-11-02 09:42:46 来源:大学生学习网

The foreign language publishing house USES a kind of language to publish books every year. There are many books in English. Make a copy of Chinese manuscript into foreign language, and then make a complete book, the process is complicated, demanding a lot. It is common practice to talk about the title of a book, the introduction of text and so on, in order to get some advice from the colleagues.

 

I. title

 

It is understood that in the book production, the British and American publishing houses spend a great deal of time on the cover. A title is often delayed after the book is finalized, so the title is important. Indeed, a book, a good title is a key link.

 

Is often put in front of our staff have identified the Chinese title (literature does not belong to here to discuss the category), our mission is to be on the premise of faithful meaning to the title as comply with English readers habit, easy to cause their interest in a book of English title. This is a re-creation process. The first person has a thorough understanding of the content of the book. That's how you can carve out a title for yourself. Secondly, pay attention to the following points:

 

To capture the core content of the Chinese title, highlight the theme and draw the reader's attention. Such as: published by foreign language press in Xue Muqiao monograph, author of China's socialist economic problem research content is the meaning of China's social economy as a whole topic to discuss, has a theory, there are instances, there are data, is not the only speak face. The title of the English title of China's Socialist conomy omitted the "study of the problem", which could not only stand out but also give the book its due authority. Even though some authoritative Chinese academic books, the title of the book often contains the words "first exploration" and "introduction". In China, tens of thousands of Chinese books are published every year. These words can be removed.

 

The basic question of contemporary China, published by deng xiaoping, is another example of this kind of book. Initially, the title was considered to be "socialism with Chinese characteristics (to be renewed)" (a booklet of the same name was published before that). The title of this type of statement cannot be seen at a glance at the core of a book, and it does not help the reader to grasp the theme. Later, the book was decided as Fundamental Issues in the Present-day China.

 

Album: qi baishi is our country with foreign language publishing high-grade picture album, the first book of qi baishi works collected over the last three years until his death, many of which are published for the first time, its artistic appreciation value and research value is very high. However, qi baishi, after all, was a Chinese painter who had been dead for many years, and he didn't know much about him. Hence the need for a book title to help potential readers learn about qi baishi. If only the title of the Chinese name is Selected Paintings of Qi Bashi, it is difficult to know the characteristics of the painter. Apart from his name, it was difficult for foreigners to pronounce. The title of the title of the title of the title of the title is "Likeness and Unlikeness", and the subtitle is Selected Paintings of Qi Baishi.

 

Add more text to make English titles more attractive to readers. In many cases, the title of a book is accurately described in several words. But straight to foreign readers, they tend to produce a profound sense of inscrutable; The sense of unintelligible makes it difficult for readers to express special interest in the book in the vast sea of books. On the contrary, a few words, sometimes even a few words, will make the subject of a book clear and easy to arouse the reader's interest. Simple examples include Xu Beihong's Life, Xu Beihong-Life of a Master painter.

 

Published by foreign language press in "a brief history of the People's Republic of China are the English title main title for Years of trials, Turmoil and Triumph, subtitle for China from the to, the title from" a brief history of the Chinese book title is a bit far some, but not against new China Years this topic. The main title highlights the characteristics of the various stages of O year, and the time span of this book is explained by subtitle.

 

Book China customs and the secret file four volumes, a word, the main content is to O years between occupy the qing dynasty general customs commissioner of the British hurd, director of the London office with gold letters and telegrams exchanges between the dry, is to understand the western powers to control China and old China as an important reference book of semi-colonial nature. In the United States, professor fei qing has received many letters and published two volumes of the main title of Inspector General in Peking. We have more than two thirds of the content of a set of fei qing, with stronger authority and academic value. If the title is straight Chinese, it is difficult to make sense of the secret files of a Chinese customs in any time. The title of the English title is the Archives of China's Imperial Maritime Customs (which means that this is historical information by the word Imperial), and the subtitle is Confidential Correspondence Between R.Hart and j.d.ampbell --. This makes the book clear.

 

In China, admiral pang was well known, but the west knew little about him. Therefore, the title of "peng dehuai self-report" is absolutely not simple. The title of the book is the Memoirs of A Chinese Marshal--A Cultural revolution, by Marshal Peng Dehuai (--), Covering his Career from Services in China's Warlord Armies to Command of the Chinese Peoples' Volunteers in Korea. The so-called confession is actually the "metasomatic material" written during the cultural revolution. The title was explained, with a view to attracting interest from foreign readers, and the title of his former army in the warlords, once again fighting the americans. Although these two points did not fully represent his military life, the most noticeable content of western English readers included. As a title, it appears to be a bit longer, but it is clear and still unsparingly telling the reader the subject of the book.

 

Regardless of English reading habits, straight Chinese title, must fail. On this side, there are many examples. For example: Chen Yi and gan yuebian Base areas are Chen Yi and the cago-guangdong Base Area. How can you expect the general foreign readers to know what they are doing?

 

For example, "Chinese great foot Grottoes" is Dazu Grottoes. "The mural of Yongle Palace" is The Yongle Palace Murals. It does not reflect the importance and characteristics of the two places in the history of cultural art. Even this is not reflected in China.

 

To help foreigners learn to use Chinese dictionaries, a tool book called "the written word" was published. The Stroke ncoding of Dictionary Consultation. Not to mention foreigners, even the Chinese who read the title do not necessarily guess that this is a book about what to say.

 

The proper processing of the preamble and content introduction process

 

Overview of Chinese book preface or foreword, the author, editor's note, etc., if it is not the author (or editor, similarly hereinafter) my pen, and by others as a sequence, often write of is all praise highly, praised the author's wisdom; Courage, perseverance, level, etc. But the author himself often has a sentence or two: "the level is limited, the mistakes or improper in the book are inevitable. I want the reader to give me some criticism." "The level is limited, the time is hasty, unavoidable fallacy, please point." "It is a traditional virtue of the Chinese people," he said. In Chinese book, write a few words that can express their author modest rigorous doing scholarly research attitude, at the same time, to suggest that I work need not be a the top of the academic research, a field may well behind. It should be said that, in general, these words make people more respectful of the author.

 

However, due to cultural differences; It would be counterproductive to write this pure Chinese language into English. Although there is a lot of fallacies in the book of the west, the author does not acknowledge it in the front of his own book. Because, according to their habits and logic, if the author or publisher acknowledges that there is a problem with their publication, the reader will say that he knows he is "limited"; Is it not to be misused to publish, knowing that your work is unavoidably "unavoidably"? Why not raise the level first and then publish the fallacies? If it's a "time rush", why not make another arrangement and bring out a mature work? If general academic papers, but the teaching material can't allows authors to retain "error or wrong place" as for medicine monographs, needs to be one hundred percent accurate, must not allow authors to bury "mistakes and wrong place", otherwise, to death.

 

According to the appreciation psychology of foreign readers, the foreign language publishing house has done different kinds of processing for this kind of text in the preface. Such as "fourteen meridian" this is a professor of acupuncture large textbooks, the authors also authorities, but he wrote in the "writing", because the editor level is limited, unavoidable mistakes and shortcomings "in English when the book will be a" writing ", ask others to write another sequence.

 

Of course, it is not possible to make a factual account of the reader, or even brag about it, to avoid misunderstanding. Book of the People's Republic of China concerning diplomatic memorabilia "editor's note" talk about "book was published so far most of the foreign relations of historical data," also pointed out that "limited to the source and the level of the editors, book unavoidably have omissions, is refers to hope readers. The last sentence is... After the book was published, two foreign embassies in China called in to point out that the book missed two major events in their engagement with China. For a publishing house, such a book involving sino-foreign relations, the emergence of omission, is a more serious accident. But in the case of the editor, at least, the attitude of the editor is factual.

 

How to avoid using Chinese style, foreigners may sound overly courteous, but also express the author's sincere welcome scholars to discuss. The desire to improve the level of the work to achieve the best of both worlds? The Chinese archeological vocabulary of the foreign language publishing house is well handled. In the book "editor's note", in Chinese, "our level is limited, this vocabulary is only a preliminary attempt, a defect and a fault, and the general readers are not shy about giving advice." English is very simple: Suggestions for improvement will be gratefully received. The book was completed in the year. Although the editor calls it "a preliminary attempt", it should be said to be meaningful, because it fills a void. There has been no substitute for this small dictionary. In Chinese, it is likely to reduce its authority in the eyes of foreign readers. Now this method has both the style of Chinese scholars and English reading habits.

 

The explanatory power of some words

 

In recent years, Chinese writers and editors have paid more attention to introducing some explanatory words to the introduction of China. But it is completely unique to China, and the words that foreigners find difficult to understand are still full of preface, the content introduction and the author's biography, not to mention the text.

 

It is important to explain some important events or political movements in our history. Since the third plenary session of the party, the NPC has passed a series of laws. Some idea how much China foreigners may know began to implement in China s reform and opening up the needle, but, for the third plenary session decided to strengthen socialist democracy and legal system construction of decision is not clear. Therefore, a few words have been added to this sentence. The whole sentence is like this: Under the guidance of the policy of promoting socialist like democracy and building a sound socialist legal system formulated at the Third Plenary Session of the leventh Central Committee of the communism Party of China, the NPC and its Standing Committee have, since, enacted many important laws. In this way, the somebody else will know Third Plenary Session of the contact between the National People's Congress makes the laws.

 

There are many seemingly insignificant words or phrases that foreign readers find difficult to understand and sometimes even misunderstand. The resume of the characters in the Chinese dictionary is basically underlined by the founding of new China, which divides a person's experience into two stages. As a result, almost every interpretation has a "national foundation". Or the word "post-founding". And as "Chinese acupuncture dictionary so strong a specialized dictionaries in the manuscripts," during the Anti-Japanese War ", "since the founding of the people" this some time concept for foreigners vague words often appear. In this case, the foreign press generally preferred a clear and understandable word first, and it was best to add time when it first appeared. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in China, the founding of the People's Republic of China has been the founding of the People's Republic of China. During the War of Resistance, "certainly during the War of Resistance Against Japan.

 

Each book includes an introduction to the author, and the title is another prominent example. In enterprises and business has a batch of belonging to the economist series, such as business unit personnel cadres, cadres in charge of foreign affairs in some organizations, and staff of foreign trade system, industrial and mining enterprises in the data members are economist series. It is not appropriate for the economist to be the economist of these units. In general, the personnel cadre is not specialized study economics graduate, how can be called economist? A factory manager is not necessarily an economic expert. As far as the economist is concerned, the foreign publishing house has studied many times, and has consulted the colleagues of the brothers, and has never found a satisfactory method. Unable to find the corresponding English vocabulary, we have to find a way to explain the nature of the work of the economist. At present, the statement of the officer of economic administration is adopted. Although it is difficult to very accurately reflect the whole series all the work of economist meaning (because of the series include surface too wide), and the article is too long, but at least can reflect labor personnel, the main work of foreign trade personnel and the personnel officer.

 

These are some of the simplest examples of this type of problem. This Chinese vocabulary is both difficult and unflattering. At the same time, it is an unavoidable issue in the work of China and the UK. We hope that the community can find an effective collaborative solution to solve this problem in a timely manner.

外文出版社使用种文字,每年出版至种图书。其中英文图书多种。把一份中文稿件成外文,再制成一本完整的书,工序繁杂,要求很多。仅就如何好一本书的书名、介绍文字等谈谈外文出版社的常见做法,以期得到同行们的指点。

一、书名的

据了解,在出书生产悔上,英美发达国家的出版社在封面上花的工夫极大。一个书名往往在全书定稿之后仍然迟迟确定不下来,可见书名的重要性。确实,一本书,好书名是关键的一环。

放在我们人员面前的通常是已经确定了的中文书名(文学著作不属此处讨论的范畴),我们的任务就是要在忠实原意的前提下把书名成符合英文读者习惯,容易引起他们对一本书兴趣的英文书名。这是一个再创作的过程。首先要求者对全书的内容有比较透彻的理解。这样才能为自己开辟出书名的活动余地。其次,要注意下面几点:

l、要抓住中文书名的核心内容,突出主题,吸引读者的注意力。比如:外文出版社年出版的薛暮桥的专著《中国社会主义经济问题研究》一书的内容就是把中国的社会之义经济作为一个整体课题来探讨,有理论,有实例,有数据,并非只讲有问题的面。英文书名定为China's Socialist conomy省去了"问题研究",从而既醒目,又使该书享有其应有的权威性。即使一些权威性很强的中文学术专著,其书名也往往含有"初探"、"简介"等字眼。中国每年出版几万种中文书,能成外文的一定是同类书中价值较高者。这些字眼是可以去掉的。

年出版的邓小平同志所著《当代中国的基本问题》是这类书中另一个例子。最初,曾考虑把书名定为《建设有中国特色的社会主义(续编)》(因在此之前,于年出版过同名的小册子。)这种口号式的书名不能一目了然地点出一本书的核心内容,起不到帮助读者抓住主题的作用。后来,决定英文书名为 Fundamental Issues in Present-day China.

《齐白石画集》是我国用外文出版的第一本齐白石作品的高档画册,收集了年至他年去世多年间的精品,其中不少是第一次发表,其艺术欣赏价值和研究价值都很高。然而,齐白石毕竟是去世多年的一位中国国画画家,西对他了解不多。因此,更需要书名能帮助潜在的读者了解齐白石其人其事。如果仅仅把中文书名为 Selected Paintings of Qi Bashi,很难让人知道这位画家的特点;且不说他的姓名令外国人难以发音。英文书名采用了齐白石对自己作品的概括性的评价:"似与不似中间"这句话,把书名主标题定为 Likeness and Unlikeness,副标题才是Selected Paintings of Qi Baishi。

又适当增加文字,使英文书名对读者更具有吸引力。在很多情况下,中文书名几个字就准确地介绍了一本书的主题。但直给外国读者,往往使他们产生一种深奥莫测;不知所云的感觉,也就很难使读者在浩瀚的书海中对这本书表示出特别的兴趣。反之,加上几个字,有时甚至不惜几行字,会使一本书的主题明了,容易引起读者的兴趣。简单的例子有《徐悲鸿的生》,为Xu Beihong-Life of a Master painter.

外文出版社年出版的《中华人民共和国简史》人英文书名主标题为 Years of Trial, Turmoil and Triumph,副标题为China from to ,这个书名距离《简史》这一中文书名稍远了一些,但没有违背新中国年历史这一主题。利用主标题突出了O年各个阶段的特点,通过副标题对本书的时间跨度作了说明。

《中国海关秘档》一书共四卷,长达万字,主要内容是年至O年之间占据清朝海关总税务司要职的英国人赫德与其伦敦办事处主任金登干之间的信件和电报往来,是了解西列强控制中国以及旧中国半殖民地性质的一部重要参考书。美国的费清教授曾得到多封信件,于年出版了主标题为Inspector-General in Peking的两卷本。我们这一套比费清的一套多三分之二的内容,具有更强的权威性和学术价值。如果直中文书名,很难让人搞清这是一部关于哪个时代的中国海关的什么机密档案。故英文书名主标题为 Archives of China's Imperial Maritime Customs(通过 imperial一字说明这是历史资料),副标题为 Confidential Correspondence Between R.Hart and J.D.Campbell--。这样使该书的内容一清二楚。

在中国,彭德怀元帅可谓有口皆碑,但西人对他知之甚少。因此,《彭德怀自述》这个书名绝对不可简单照。经过反复推敲并吸收了外国书名的特点,英文书名定为Memoirs of A Chinese Marshal--A Cultural revolution "Confession" by Marshal Peng Dehuai(-), Covering his Career from Services in China's Warlord Armies to Command of the Chinese Peoples's Volunteers in Korea。所谓自述,实际上是"文革"期间被边写的'交代材料"。对此,书名作了解释,以期引起外国读者的兴趣、书名还点出他曾在军阀队伍中从军,又曾在朝鲜与美国人作战。虽然这两点未能最全面地表现他的戎马一生,但是最容易引起西英文读者注意的内容包括进来了。作为书名,显得过长了一些,但却比较清晰并仍然不失简练地告诉了读者这本书的主题内容。

、不顾英文阅读习惯,直中文书名,必然失败。在这一面,实例也很多。比如:《陈毅与赣粤边根据地人为Chen Yi and the Jiangxi-Guangdong Base Area, 人名加地名六个汉语拼音堆在一起,怎么能指望一般外国读者知其所以然!

又如,《中国大足石窟》为 Dazu Grottoes.《永乐宫壁画》为 The Yongle Palace Murals。文完全没有反映出两地在文化艺术史上的重要性及其特色,就连是属于中国的这一点也没反映出来。

为了帮助学习汉语的外国人学会使用中文字典,曾出版了一本名为《笔形编码查字》的工具书。英文书名为 The Stroke ncoding of Dictionary Consultation。不要说外国人,就连中国人看了这个书名也未必猜得出这是一本讲什么内容的书。

二、"序言"和"内容介绍"过程中的适当加工

纵览中文书里的序言或前言,作者的话,编者的话等等,若不是作者(或编者--下同)本人执笔,而由他人作序,往往写的都是赞美推崇之言,称赞作者的智慧;勇气,毅力,水平等等。但著作者本人所为,往往有这样一两句话:"水平有限,书中错误或不妥之处在所难免。希望读者给予批评指。""水平有限,时间仓促,难免谬误,敬请指。"'尚属草创,时间又仓促,疏漏~定很多,还待继续提高和充实,希望广大读者批评指."谦虚是中国人的传统美德。在中文书中,写上这样几句话,既能表示作者自己谦虚严谨的治学态度,同时地暗示本人作品并非一定是某一领域里学术研究的顶峰,很可能天外有天。应该说,在一般情况下,这些话让人更加尊重作者。

然而,由于文化背景之差别;把这种纯中国式的语言成英文,效果就会适得其反。尽管西出版的图书中谬误也极多,但作者不会自己公书的前面先承认这一点。因为,按照他们的习惯和逻辑,如果作者或出版者承认其出版物有问题,读者就会说,既然知道自己"水平有限";又明知自己的作品"谬误难免"还要出版,岂不是有意误人子弟吗?为什么不先提高一下水平,自己剔除谬误再来发表呢?如果真是"时间仓促",为什么不另做安排,从容不迫地端出一部成熟的作品呢?若是一般学术论文尚且说得过去,但教材不能允许作者保留"错误或不妥之地"至于医学专著,需要百分之百的准确,绝不能允许作者埋没"错误和不妥之处",否则,要治死人的。

根据外国读者的鉴赏心理,外文出版社对序言中的这类文字都作了不同式的处理。如《十四经穴》这是一本教授针灸学的大型教科书,其作者也是权威人士、但他在"编写说明"中写到:由于编者水平有限,错误、缺点在所难免"英文版在出书时索性取消了"编写说明",另请别人写序。

当然,也不能为了避免引起误解,就完全不向读者作出实事求是的交代,甚至自我吹嘘?!吨谢嗣窆埠凸饨淮笫录恰芬皇?quot;编者的话"讲到"本书是迄今出版的篇幅最多的对外关系的历史资料,"同时也指出"限于资料来源和编者水平,本书难免有遗漏之处,尚希读者指。'后一句话为…the Chronicle is liable to mistakes or omissions.We welcome suggestions and criticisms"果然,书出版后,有两个外国驻华使馆来信来电话指出该书漏掉了这两个国家与中国交往中的两件大事。对于一个出版社来说,出这样一本涉及中外关系的书,出现了遗漏,是个较为严重的事故。但仅就"编者的话"而言,至少表明编者的态度是实事求是的。

如何既回避使用中国式的,外国人听起来过于谦恭的词语,又能表达作者真诚欢迎学者之间共同探讨。提高著作水平的愿望,从而达到两全其美的效果呢?外文出版社的《中国考古词汇》一书处理得较好。在该书"编者的话"一节里、中文说"我们水平有限,这本词汇只是一个初步尝试,缺点和错误之处,敬希广大读者不吝赐教。"英文很简单:Suggestions for improvement will be gratefully received。这本书于年编写完毕。虽然编者称之为是"初步尝试",实际上,应该说是有意义的创举,因为它填补了一个空白。至今尚没有能取代这部小词典的作品问世。若在中文,很可能降低它在外国读者眼里的权威性。现在这种法既表达了编者的中国学者的风度,又符合英文阅读习惯。

三、一些词汇的解释性的增

最近几年,中文作者和编辑比过去较为注意对有关中国的介绍增加一些解释性的词汇;但完全属于中国特有,外国人难以理解的词汇依然充斥前言,内容介绍和作者小传之中,更不要说文了。

.对我国历史上一些重大事件或政治运动适当加以解释极为重要。有一本介绍中国法律建设的图书的内容简介一评开头就说:自从党的三中全会以来,全国人大通过了一系列法律。对中国多少有些了解的外国人可能知道我国在年代末期开始实行改革开放的针,但是,对三中全会决定加强社会主义民主和法制建设的决策就不一定清楚了。因此,在这句话时增加了几个字。整个句子是这样的: Under the guidance of the policy of promoting socialist democracy and building a sound socialist legal system formulated at the Third Plenary Session of the leventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the NPC and its Standing Committee have, since , enacted many important laws.这样,人家就会知道三中全会与全国人大制定法律之间的联系了。

、有很多看起来很不起眼的字词或短语,外国读者很难理解其确切含义,有时甚至会产生误会?!吨泄嗣蟠实洹分腥宋锏募蚶径家孕轮泄慕⒒?,把一个人的经历分为两个阶段。因此,几乎每条释文都有"建国以来"?;?quot;建国后"的字眼。又如《中国针灸大词典》这么一本专业性很强的辞书的中文稿里,"抗战期间","新中国成立以来"这样一些对于外国人来说时间概念含糊不清的词汇也常常出现。出现这类情况,外文出版社一般都要求者首先选用比较清晰易懂的词汇,并且最好在首次出现时加上时间。如把"建国以来"为Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in ;"抗战期间"当然要为during the War of Resistance Against Japan。

每本书都少不了对作者的介绍,而职称的是另一个突出的例子。企、事业单位中都有一批属于经济师系列的人员,如事业单位的人事干部,一些机关团体里的外事干部,外贸系统的工作人员,工矿企业里的劳资料成员都属经济师系列。把这些单位的经济师为economist很不合适。在通常情况下,人事干部不是专门学习经济学的毕业生,怎么可能称作是economist?一个工厂里的劳资科长也不一定就是经济专家。仅就经济师而言,外文出版社研究过多次,也征求过兄弟单位同行们的意见,始终没有找到一个令人满意的法。在无法找到相应的英文词汇的情况下,只好先想办法把经济师所从事的工作性质解释一下。目前,采用officer of economic administration的说法。虽然很难十分准确地反映整个经济师系列的全部工作含义(因为这个系列包括的面太广),而且文太长,但至少可以反映劳资人员,外贸人员和人事干部的主要工作的性质。

以上是这一类问题中最简单的几个例子。这种完全是中国特色的词汇起来既难又不讨好。同时,又是中英工作中不可回避的问题。我们希望界能找出一种有效的协作式,及时地解决这面的问题。